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  #31  
Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

I've made a start at the content of what I want to say. Now I have to put that into 'forum thread' mode I am going to keep it simple (as that's all I know really), and will start with the filters I've used, where they were from, and their effects. Then my Camera settings - which hopefully can be transferred from the E-3 to other E-Series cameras. Then I'll go onto the imagery etc and post processing - which is where I think most people are interested.

Just remember folks... I aint no Wrotniak, nor am I any super tog. I'm just a keen amateur who enjoys photography and trying to help others.
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Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

Quote:
Originally Posted by theMusicMan View Post
I've made a start at the content of what I want to say. Now I have to put that into 'forum thread' mode I am going to keep it simple (as that's all I know really), and will start with the filters I've used, where they were from, and their effects. Then my Camera settings - which hopefully can be transferred from the E-3 to other E-Series cameras. Then I'll go onto the imagery etc and post processing - which is where I think most people are interested.

Just remember folks... I aint no Wrotniak, nor am I any super tog. I'm just a keen amateur who enjoys photography and trying to help others.
Now, now, John. Don't be so modest.

We're all expecting your pearls of wisdom to take our own photography to a higher level in one giant quantum leap!

But don't worry, no pressure.....
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  #33  
Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

You're wicked Mr P.... wicked you are

Anyway... here goes, my attempt at trying to describe in simple terms how to go about having a go at what I term... ‘Affordable IR photography

Part 1: Introductions and preamble: So – what is IR Photography, and why do I do it...?

Much the same as many gênres of photography, IR photography is often seen as an an area you either love or hate; you either like it or not. So, what was the attraction for me?, well.. coupled with my new found desire to learn as much as I can about landscape photography, it was seeing some of these stunningly beautiful landscape shots processed in ‘extreme’ black and white – which is now an area I find myself drawn into more and more. I love landscape photography, and I am becoming more and more inclined to the ‘extreme’ end of the image processing spectrum i.e. the likes of HDR, of tone mapping, and of black and white IR conversions. IR photography, particularly with regard to black and white conversions, does lend itself very well to high contrast, 'pushed to the limits' imagery – a style I particularly enjoy. Having said that of course, the amount and style of post processing applied to any image is all down to an individuals tastes and preferences. Personally, I don’t believe IR can ever be subtle per sê, as the effect of simply looking at an IR shot usually has an immediate impact on the viewer one way or another, but neither does it have to be pushed to the limits. Subtle maybe not, but somewhere that sits between subtle and extreme is do-able!!

Remember – it’s your image, and you apply your style to its processing... that’s what I do!

An IR photograph is an image that is mainly comprised of IR light. Sensors in modern DSLRs are receptive to this IR light - some more so than others, and given that these modern DSLRs will ‘see’ this IR light, how one goes about taking an IR shot is quite simply to control how much of this IR light gets through to reach the sensor. However, in summary, there’s two ways to accomplish this, and they subsequently define how one goes about creating IR shots;
1 – have a DSLR camera converted to become an IR only camera
2 – use a filter on a standard DSLR to filter out all light other than IR light
I am not an expert in this, but I am led to believe that most modern DSLRs have an in-built IR filter i.e. there is a filter inside the camera positioned in front of the sensor that filters out a significant proportion of this IR light. The amount of IR light filtered prior to the light hitting the sensor is of course dependent on the camera, its filter and their make and model, but... and this is the important bit, regardless of this – the internal IR filters do not block 100% of the IR light, and hence some of this light will get through the internal filter to reach and be recorded on the sensor. For unconverted cameras, when used normally, the amount of IR light reaching the sensor is negligible and thus it subsequently has no effect at all on the images taken. This then begins to define in more detail why there are (in summary) two methods used to create IR images... i.e. remove the internal IR filter in a DSLR and make it an IR only camera, or use a filter to block all ambient light and allow only IR light through the lens to the sensor. The two methods however, require an entirely different approach.

Summary of DSLR IR conversion

When a camera is converted to become an IR only camera, the internal IR filter is removed, and is replaced by an ambient light filter. This has the effect of blocking almost all visible light (the amount of which depends on the specifics of the filter, and I won’t be discussing this at all – I have zero knowledge!!), but allowing all IR light through to reach the sensor i.e. the complete opposite of what could be described as the cameras ‘normal’ operation. For illustration purposes; the type of light reaching the sensor could equate to;
  • normal unconverted DSLR operation = 99.9% ambient light, 0.1% IR light
  • IR converted DSLR operation = 00.1% ambient light, 99.9% IR light
With this method of capturing IR images; i.e. using a camera converted to an IR camera (or using one that was built to be an IR only camera), one can use any existing lenses on the IR converted body, and one attains shutter speeds and apertures akin to using the camera in ‘normal’ light. Thus there are significant benefits to be gained by using this approach to IR photography, especially in terms of lenses that can be used, and shooting conditions re: aperture and shutter speed. The down side of this of course is two-fold; 1 – you need a camera you are happy to have converted and lose ‘normal’ use of, and 2 - the cost of the IR conversion, which can be up to several hundred pounds (on top of the cost of the camera).

Using IR filters – the affordable method!!

The ‘affordable’ method of creating IR images is to use filters, however there’s what I believe to be a mistake made in the definition of what are called IR filters. IR filters (as they are known) are not IR filters at all, in fact they are ambient light filters. Although they are called IR filters they don’t block any IR light, they actually block significant amounts of ambient light – allowing only light at the red end of the spectrum through to reach the sensor. If they blocked IR light, then we wouldn’t be able to take IR photo’s eh!

So OK, we have this filter placed over the lens, how is an IR image created using this filter? Well, this is simple… we block nearly all of the ambient light from reaching the sensor, and we then allow only this IR light through – the drawback of this of course is that there’s still an IR blocking filter fitted inside the DSLR. But… we also know that this internal IR blocking filter does not block 100% of the IR light reaching the sensor, and so all we need to do is to allow more of this ambient filtered light through to the sensor by simply increasing the exposure time. This way, only IR light has got through, and we can register an IR image on the sensor.

OK, this process is not anywhere near as polished as using a converted or bespoke IR DSLR, and yes - image quality will suffer, but the IR images that can be attained using this approach can still be very good indeed with some wonderful IR images being produced using it!

Summary

In essence, both methods use the same technique in allowing only IR light to reach the sensor; one approach does this better, limits the camera to an IR only camera, and costs significantly more, the other perhaps doesn’t create such high IQ, requires longer exposures, does allow you to selectively use the camera as ‘normal’, and costs significantly less. There… hopefully that explains at least in summary, the two methods of creating IR images.

Next installment later - on where to get filters, typical camera settings, and preparing to take IR shots.
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Last edited by theMusicMan; 20th November 2009 at 01:39 PM.
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  #34  
Old 20th November 2009
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Thumbs up Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

Looking great so far, John - my breath is bated...
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  #35  
Old 20th November 2009
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Smile Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

Sounding good waiting with my white fivers from under the mattress clutched in my tiny hand to purchase an ambient light filter when you give us the knowledge of which one!

wee man
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  #36  
Old 20th November 2009
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Wow John! This is an exceptional & very informative article you have written here.......................I can`t wait for the next installment!
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  #37  
Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

Quote:
Originally Posted by steverh View Post
Looking great so far, John - my breath is bated...
Quote:
Originally Posted by Wee man View Post
Sounding good waiting with my white fivers from under the mattress clutched in my tiny hand to purchase an ambient light filter when you give us the knowledge of which one!

wee man
Quote:
Originally Posted by EH1 View Post
Wow John! This is an exceptional & very informative article you have written here.......................I can`t wait for the next installment!
Thanks to each of you for your kind words. I'm just trying to explain things in my own simple terms... trying to avoid technical jargon and becoming engrossed in too much detail.

I am going to try to get the next (shorter) update posted for tonight or possibly tomorrow sometime.
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  #38  
Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

Great stuff so far John. I have ordered one of those cheap IR filters from EBay and can't wait to try it out now!
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  #39  
Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

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Originally Posted by benvendetta View Post
Great stuff so far John. I have ordered one of those cheap IR filters from EBay and can't wait to try it out now!
Thanks Dave, though I am not sure what I am able to inform you of regarding any aspect of photography... you've far more experience than I.

Glad I've convinced you to try out one of the cheap Chinese imports though.
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Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

Quote:
Originally Posted by theMusicMan View Post
Thanks Dave, though I am not sure what I am able to inform you of regarding any aspect of photography... you've far more experience than I.

Glad I've convinced you to try out one of the cheap Chinese imports though.
I *may* be more experienced but at least you are getting out there and doing stuff! I find it very difficult to find the time these days.
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  #41  
Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

Great stuff, John. I had full confidence that you'd come up with the goods. Looking forward to Part Two!
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  #42  
Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

Part 2 – Filters and Camera settings

OK, hope you enjoyed part 1, now to move on to part two of my little foray into explaining in simple terms, affordable IR photography.

Filters

I have previously posted details regarding filters here on egroup, but for continuity I should also include reference to these filters in this thread too. I discovered, quite by accident I might add, that I had a 52mm Hoya IR filter in my camera bag. Quite how it came to be there, sitting in my camera bag, is a subject of much curiosity and fascination for both myself and for John Baker – as we think the filter is his. In any event, spotting this in my camera bag made me think of having a go at trying out some IR photos – and however it got there I am grateful to John for this happening. Ahem… enough said on that matter, eh.

Here's the link to the eBay Chinese supplier where I obtained the 72mm IR filter for my Oly 11-22mm lens.

So, the filter was a Hoya R72 IR filter, available quite reasonably from the likes of Warehouse Express (other brands and suppliers are available!!) for around £35.00. Not too expensive.

Anyway, the one drawback of using IR filters is that their use is fixed to a specific size thread of lens, and are thus not entirely interchangeable across all of your lenses. It’s not as if one can purchase a drop in IR filter such as the Cokin P series, as there needs to be zero light leakage and the drop in filters won’t provide that – hence IR filters are usually only supplied in screw thread type, of different sizes to match the thread of the front of your lens. Obviously, if you want to be able to use IR filters on each of your lenses, you will need to purchase one IR filter per lens thread size.

IR lenses become considerably more expensive as the lens thread size increases. I spotted a 72mm thread IR filter earlier in the year to use with my Olympus 11-22mm lens - for around £100 at one point – which is considerably more expensive than the 52mm.

We all here know the quality of Olympus glass, and especially the quality of the kit lenses supplied with many of the Olympus range of DLSRs. The wide(ish) kit lens supplied with many e-series cameras is the Olympus 14-42mm, and I used the Hoya R72 52mm IR filter with this lens for some time – and found that the image quality of photographs taken with it exceeded my capabilities, and hence I was happy to use this combination for my IR photography for at least a little while.

I forget where I originally spotted this, but when I started looking for an IR filter for use with my Olympus 11-22mm lens, I came across a supplier in China who offered considerably cheaper versions of the 72mm thread IR filter than I had seen here in the UK. At £16.00’ish I thought it worthy of a punt, and ordered one. I must admit that it is superb; it arrived within a week, I received extremely polite and friendly communications during this time from the company I ordered it from, and ultimately I am more than happy to provide a good reference for this company should anyone here also consider this worthy of a punt. I can assure you that you won’t be disappointed.

OK, so we’ve not got the IR filter needed, and placed it on the desired lens… what next?
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  #43  
Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

Part 2 continued...
Camera Settings

This is the point on my IR quest where, given my limited knowledge, I found myself faced with further interesting challenges. How on earth should I set up my camera so that I can take some decent IR images…? What mode, what aperture, shutter speed etc… initially I had no clue and experimentation was the order of the day.

Here’s the lo down; the problem we are faced with is that when we place the IR filter on the lens of the camera, remember that this effectively blocks out 99.9% of the ambient light, so how on earth are we to compose our image, and also how is the camera supposed to focus and meter the scene…?

The answer my good people, is that dreaded letter we all know exists and is sitting there on our cameras dials, but many of us choose to completely ignore… the letter that instills fear into us lesser experienced togs… the letter ‘M’ – arrgghh. Yes, the answer to our prayers is easy, and as I have found to my pleasure, ‘everything manual’ is the order of the day. Manual mode, manual focus, manual everything is what you need to venture into here, but… believe me, it is really very easy. If I can master it, anyone can.

The camera I have used to experiment with IR photography is my E-3; I haven’t tried any other camera for this use so am unable to advise if my particular settings can be replicated on any of the other e-series cameras. Obviously, when I get around to talking about the aperture settings and exposure times, these can be replicated, but as for live view, live view boost and exposure metering, I am not sure how these features will perform/work on other e-series cameras so please bear with me, and perhaps try out a few things via experimentation as I did.

So, ensure your camera is in ‘M’ mode, and that manual only focussing is set. On my E-3, and I believe on other e-series cameras with live view, there is a live view boost function available in the menu options. I have found this invaluable when taking IR shots as it enables me to see the image far more clearly than if not enabled. It does use more battery power though and as such the number of shots you can take on a full charge is related to the amount of time you have the screen display turned on. Just having live view boost enabled doesn't eat battery time, but when you are displaying the image on the screen does.

On the E-3, the menu setting to enable this is here;
Spanner 1 > Spanner D > LIVE VIEW BOOST = On
… not sure where exactly, but this might be in a similar location for other e-series cameras. I have this setting enabled to ‘On’, as then when I have live view turned on and enabled, even with the IR filter on the lens I can at least make out the scene on the screen well enough to make an initial stab at the composition. It’s not immensely bright, but usually this turns out bright enough for me to use adequately for compositional purposes. This also allows me to adjust the exposure somewhat, although this is mainly experimentation.

I should also point out that you should also try to ensure that the in-camera IS [image stability] is turned off, though when I have forgotten to do this (and it’s 50/50 for me) I have noticed no drop off in image quality whatsoever. Olympus do advise you to turn off IS when using the camera on a tripod as this can apparently fool the internal IS controls and actually cause some motion blur. I find this rather bizarre but as I have mentioned, I’ve never seen this effect, ever… so it is entirely your choice as to whether you turn IS off or leave it on when your camera is set up on a tripod.

It is also a good idea to have the in-camera NR turned on. This will yield far better image quality in the final result than not using it, and I thoroughly recommend turning this feature on. It does double the time required to get a shot, which when you’re possibly at 20second + exposures already can be a pain; but believe me when I say the results are worth it.

Now on to the focus – well this is full manual only, so depending on what I am attempting to photograph and the desired depth of field, I will select an appropriate aperture and use the gauge on the lens to determine the focus point, which as I am usually trying my hand at landscape photography, is usually close to infinity. The depth of field will provide enough close focus so that the majority of the scene will be in focus.
This is made slightly more difficult of course when talking IR photographs of subjects that are much closer; such as architecture or people, or closer nature scenes of ponds and canals etc. For these shots, I tend to remove the IR filter from the lens, and while still in full manual only focus mode, compose and focus the frame as desired. I then replace the IR filter ensuring not to move the focus dial, or move the camera on the tripod whilst doing so.

Now we come to exposure and metering. On my E-3, I find that with the IR filters I use, there is enough IR light getting through to the exposure circuitry for the E-3 to provide an accurate indication of the required exposure. I then simply look at the indication on the live view screen or on the E-3’s LCD display on the top of the camera, and adjust my exposure/aperture dials accordingly. If it’s landscape stuff I’m taking I will usually have a 2second delay on the shutter, but I don’t always keep to this and often use normal shutter action with no delay as the E-3 takes a small amount of time (less than a second) to open up and take the shot.
I am sure that the typical exposure times and apertures will vary depending on camera model (the amount of IR light that’s filtered by the in camera IR filter), and the IR filter used (the quality of the filter glass, and the specification of the filter itself), but typically I would try setting of 13s – 20s, and f8-f11 as a starter.

Summary

ISO: 100-200 – as low as possible really, as long exposure photographs will inherently attract lots of noise. You need to do all you can to mitigate the noise. Sure, ISO can be increased as you see fit, and on the E-3 (and I assume the better ISO performing E-30) you can safely increase this to ISO800/1000 – but you will then possibly need to apply noise reduction in the post processing. This isn’t an issue though, as I often use Neat Image NR in some of my IR shots.
Aperture: whatever suits the composition really, most of mine have been at f5 – f11, which is around an optimum lens aperture for the best image quality.
Shutter Speed: I have used 8 seconds right up to 40 seconds for shutter speed. If you don’t want cloud or tree breeze movement then you need to adjust settings accordingly.

What you get as a result: the image

When you take an IR image using the IR filter on lens method, and then you see it on your cameras viewfinder or computer screen – to be honest, you might be initially quite disappointed. Remember that the sensor has only seen light from the extreme red end of the light spectrum, and the RAW file will look pretty awful. This is where your post processing will reap rewards, and turn your bland, dull, shades-of-red image, into a wonderful black and white (or falsely coloured) image.

To end this part 2, here’s a few examples.





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  #44  
Old 20th November 2009
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Fantastic John! Could I just add that you can buy a IR filter to fit the thread of your biggest lens, & just use step-up rings on your other lenses, so that you can use the same filter!
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Old 20th November 2009
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Re: Introduction to affordable IR Photography

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Fantastic John! Could I just add that you can buy a IR filter to fit the thread of your biggest lens, & just use step-up rings on your other lenses, so that you can use the same filter!
Thanks Edward.

Yep, you can indeed do that, no reason at all not to do it this way. Good point.
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