F stops
Following a thread here by Paul, I was always of the opinion that f stops were arithmetical.......ie f5.6 was double or half of f2.8
When evaluating a lens, this is obviously very important knowledge...... Need educating........:) 
Re: F stops
I thought f2.8 allowed in twice the light of f4 and 4 times f5.6, but it has been a long day and I could be confused?

Re: F stops
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The key thing to do is not to confuse fstop and fnumber. The fnumber of a lens is the inverse ratio of aperture diameter to focal length. That is, if you have an aperture of 25mm wide on a 50mm lens, then it's f2:  fnumber = reciprocal of 25/50 = 2So, if you double that ratio  e.g. f2.8 to f5.6 then it means that you've halved the aperture diameter. Now, the amount of light passing through the aperture is proportional to the area of the opening. Since Area = pi * r^2, if you half the aperture width then you reduce the area of the opening by a factor of four. That means that the light intensity is reduced by a factor of four too. Now, photographic stop, or fstop represents a halving (or doubling if you go the other way) of light. So, going from f2.8 to f5.6 means a four fold reduction in light intensity which equates to halving twice  i.e. 2 fstops. The progression of aperture fnumbers from f1 downwards in fstops is thus: f1, f1.4, f2, f2,8, f4, f5.6, f8, f11, f16 You'll see that each doubling of fnumber is actually 2 fstops. 
Re: F stops
Thanks teacher Paul..:):)
Sounds a bit logarithmic to me........Will study your figures later. Actually interesting to compare the f2.8 40150mm to the Pany 100400mm and to understand how much faster the Oly lens is. Many thanks for the enlightenment........ *chr 
Re: F stops
The difference in the amount of light admitted (for a given exposure time) for an aperture change of 1 stop is a factor of 2 i.e half or double the amount. That means the surface area of the aperture is also double or half, which is logical: double the surface area and you let in twice the amount of light. Halve the surface area and you admit half the light. If you now do the sums you will see that for the surface area to double or half the diameter will change by a factor of the square root of 2 (1.414).
If you now look at the whole stop changes, give or take a bit, you will see that the aperture diameters change in increments or divisions of 1.414. i.e. 2.0 x 1.414 ≈ 2.8, 2.8 x 1.414 ≈ 4, 4 x 1.414 ≈ 5.6, 5.6 x 1.414 ≈ 8.0 ....... and so on. Steve 
Re: F stops
1.414 of course being the square root of 2 and as the square root of 2 multiplied by the square root of 2 is 2, then multiplying twice by the square root of 2 is the same as multiplying by 2.

Re: F stops
Yes, if you want to let in twice as much light, the three common ways are:
Expose for twice as long a duration Stop down by one stop (e.g. from f4 to f2.8, or f2.8 to f2, or f2 to f1.4 etc) Double the ISO speed (e.g from 100 to 200, or 200 to 400, or 400 to 800 etc) Comparing lenses with different focal lenghts is a rather different matter ... 
Re: F stops
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:D:D:D:D 
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